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Oracle database shutdown immediate hung up

Users complain of exceed process limit error from our web application. The cause of the error was traced back to the Oracle database. There might be a spurt of web application connection that caused the processes limit to be exceeded. The processes limit was adjusted to a higher value of 1000 from the existing 175.

Database needs to be bounced for the new parameter to take effect. Connecting as sysdba privilege, I tried to issue the command shutdown immediate.
SQL>shutdown immediate;
I’ve known that this is the best way to shutdown the database. The command will prevent new logins, it will rollback uncommitted transactions, and then bring down the database.

The solution to this is to force shutdown the database.
SQL>shutdown abort;
Some say that shutdown abort is not dangerous, but I have experienced also issues on starting up the database afterward. It takes very long time.

This might need checking on oracle’s process monitor (pmon) and the instance and kill them manually.
$ps -ef | grep pmon
$ps -ef | grep ora

Start up of the database could now be done. Oracle listener should be started also.

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